For homework to be truly worthwhile for special needs students, it is most important that the assigned work addresses their individual needs. If this does not occur, then frustration as well as some degree of self-deprecation will.
I must say that I take exception to the commonly heard statement that dyslexic individuals learn differently. I see this statement as being misleading as it tends to falsely indicate that we (yes, I am dyslexic, too) possess hidden mechanisms in our brains that compensate for the neurological damage that accompanies this condition.
The difference we dyslexics experience is that we need to work harder than our non-affected peers. However, it must be noted that this condition does not affect our intellectual ability. In fact, we are very capable of attaining the same academic success as our non-dyslexic peers do. Incidentally, this includes the attainment of under-grad as well as post-grad university degrees.
To learn more about dyslexia, refer to www.abcofreading.com.
Except for very rare situations, I am against the non-promotion of students because such an approach is apt to be unsuccessful. The reason for this is that these students often lack strong foundational skills in the subject(s) they are struggling with. Therefore, being exposed to the same curriculum and basically the same teaching approach tends to do little to develop inadequate skills. For instance, if a Grade 3 student is only reading at the Grade 1 level, repeating the Grade 3 curriculum is unlikely to help him/her obtain the foundational skills that he/she requires.
There are two additional reasons I don’t support holding back. One is that such an action is likely to detrimentally affect a student’s self-confidence. Once this happens, one’s ability to learn is further reduced because in order to learn one must experience success – an outcome which in turn builds confidence. And, it is this powerful combination of progress and faith in one’s ability that fosters further growth. The other reason is that not only does a drop in confidence affect one’s academic ability but it can also affect one’s social and emotional development.
In conclusion, I recommend that struggling students be advanced to the next year and that they be provided with one-on-one or small group instruction so that their needs could be directly addressed. This might appear as an expensive plan but it is actually more cost effective to remediate problems sooner than later.
I am a Special Education Teacher (retired) who is also dyslexic. Being dyslexic is significant because it was through my own struggles that I was able to acquire the insight that opened the door to a wealth of information on this neurological condition. For further details on reading difficulties and how to remediate them, visit www.abcofreading.com .
To stimulate confidence in my work, I’m presenting testimonials that substantiate the Program’s results as well as information on my professional background. Before I go any further, I want to mention that not only was I special education teacher (retired) but more significantly, I am dyslexic myself. In other words, it was the insight that I acquired from my own struggles that has allowed me to develop this excitingly effective program.
– Though a severely dyslexic 12 year old student had been exposed to a variety of remedial approaches over the years, she could not read words such as log, bit and hut when we first met. However, within 15 minutes of her first session she was reading words of this nature independently.
Her resource teacher had sat in on the session and was so impressed that she bought the Program then and there and was using it within a couple of days. This teacher had the opportunity to use the Program for two years before she retired and she later mentioned that during that time not once did she encounter a child who did not benefit from it.
– Though a completely illiterate 49 year old was exposed to a variety of reading approaches over an eleven month period, he still could not read. However, the first time my Program was presented, he read his first words ever. Six months later he was the recipient of a national award – the Peter Gzowski Learner Achievement Award.
The following is an excerpt from a letter the student’s tutor sent me.
“The first tutoring session with your materials was an eye opener for me. Somehow my student suddenly seemed to get it. Digging out the vowel and sounding it enabled him to put together a three-letter word for the first time. The look on his face made the eleven months of Thursday evenings worth it – for him and for me. Thank you so much.
– A few years back I saw a 9 year old from California. She had been tutored with one of the highly popular program and though she was seen for three two hour sessions per week for the better part of the previous school year, her progress was limited. For instance, her reading level was only at the end of Grade One when we first met. I worked with her for just two one hour sessions and during this time her reading level, according to the assessment her Californian tutor carried out, had jumped from the end of Grade 1 to the beginning of Grade 3.
The following is an excerpt from a note her dad sent me. It confirms his daughter’s progress.
“I have watched my daughter go through various reading programs and never have a great deal of success. However, in the two brief sessions she had with Ms. Trower, I saw remarkable progress in her reading abilities – our daughter could read a passage that until then had been indecipherable to her.”
Information on my Professional Background
– The Eastern Townships School Board psychologist enthusiastically supports the Program as she is finding it is reaching students who have been resistant to the various remedial approaches – including the highly popular ones that they had previously been exposed to.
– In 2015, I introduced my work to a professor in the Faculty of Education at McGill University, and in return I received an invitation to present at their Distinguished Educator Seminar Series. However, due to financial cutbacks, 11 out of the 19 seminars were cancelled and this included mine.
– I recently presented a workshop at Quebec’s Annual Teachers’ Convention. Things went very well. For instance, once the chairs were taken, folks sat themselves on the floor. This level of attendance is telling because as the audience didn’t know me, it wasn’t my reputation that had attracted them but it was their ongoing search for an effective remedial program that did. Furthermore, the workshop’s content was well appreciated. This was expressed through the audience’s evaluations as they primarily consisted of 5/5 while the remaining ones were scored at 4/5.
– The following is an extract from a letter I received from the Dean’s of Students, Bishop’s University. It alludes to the fact that in 1992 I persuaded Bishop’s University’s Senate to officially recognized students with learning disabilities and as a result it has since been standard practice for these students to receive special accommodations.
This letter will acknowledge that Mrs. M. Trower has been a consultant to Bishop’s University on learning disabled students for a period of two years. This work involved advising members of the Counselling Service, the Dean of Students and the Committee of Associate Deans on proper policies and procedures for dealing with learning disabilities. Mrs. Trower has also provided on-going counselling to a number of individual Bishop’s students.
I must tell you that Mrs. Trower’s work has been outstanding. She has provided the University with a wealth of information. She has been very effective in sensitizing the University community to this neglected area and her professionalism is noteworthy.
Please feel free to contact this office if you require any further information.
– The following is an excerpt from a letter received from a member of the Learning Associates of Montreal – an organization which is highly respected. For instance, one of its former associates was a consultant on the Canadian production of Sesame Street.
Minna is a gifted individual who has an excellent understanding of learning disabilities from both the teacher’s viewpoint, and as she herself experienced learning difficulties, she sees it from the learner’s perspective as well.
Minna has already made valuable contributions to the field of learning disabilities and I expect her to continue to do so. I have no hesitation in recommending her.
For more information on the Program, visit www.abcofreading.com .
The prime focus of the Program is on the vowels. The rationale here is that since they lack consistency of sound, they are the most difficult part of a word/syllable to decode. The other major points of concentration are on comprehension and syllabication.
It is important to keep the focus of a remedial approach narrow, especially in its early stages, as too much information tends to overwhelm and frustrate struggling students.
The Program’s simple nature allows students to experience success relatively quickly. This is significant because it develops the student’s confidence as it is the powerful forces of progress and faith in one’s ability that fosters further growth.
Re the Program’s Recommendations: In order to best address your students’/child’s needs, don’t hesitate to adjust them.
– The aim here is to provide teachers, tutors and parents with the guidance and support that will allow them to implement the Program with ease and efficiency.
– To stimulate confidence in this work, testimonials are being presented. The first one is upcoming while the others can be viewed by going to the home page of www.abcofreading.com, and then referring to Examples of Effectiveness and Letters of Acknowledgement.
When I first met a severely dyslexic 12 year old, she could not read words such as log, hut and tap. However, within 15 minutes of her first session she was applying the Program’s unique decoding techniques and was independently reading words of this nature.
Her resource teacher had sat in on the session and was so impressed that she bought the Program then and there. She was using it within a couple of days and continued to do so until she retired. She later mentioned that within the two years she had used the Program she didn’t encounter a single child who didn’t benefit from it.
– Info for Parents: You should only tutor your child if it does not result in stress and frustration. The reasoning here is that these factors not only inhibit learning but they can also have a negative impact on the parent/child relationship. For alternatives to parental tutoring, see page 3 in the Program’s Guide/Workbook.
– To avoid excessive pronoun clutter (e.g. he/she), the masculine pronoun is used when a student is being referred to as this reflects the prevalence of males to females with learning difficulties.
Comprehension – Forerunner Skills: Punctuation, Fluency & Expression
These skills need to be intentionally taught to weak readers – the incidental approach doesn’t meet their needs.
Punctuation: Inform the student that a coma signifies a short pause and a period a longer one and that in both cases the voice is slightly lowered; the length of a question mark’s pause is the same as that of a period while the voice is slightly raised.
The following techniques develop all three forerunner skills.
Modelling: The tutor reads a short sentence or part of a longer one and then has the student re-read it. Continuing with the text, the procedure is repeated 1-2 times more. This is followed by solo reading by the student. If needed, carry out this exercise 2-3 times during a session.
There is no cause for concern if the student appears to be reciting the text from memory as mimicking will still develop the required skills.
Joint Teaching: Here the tutor reads a couple of sentences along with the student. The tutor could either inform the student that s/he will be doing this or s/he could jump in whenever the need to do so arises.
Students appreciate these approaches as the built-in assistance promotes success. In addition, the environment produced by these techniques tend to be stress-free – another factor which encourages learning.
A word of caution: Techniques such as attempting to improve fluency by reading against the clock has a testing element to it. Therefore, it’s recommended that it only be used if it does not cause the student to become apprehensive.
Side Note: Please note that if the efficacy of an approach has been questioned by professionals but is working well for your student/child (there is progress without undue stress), by all means use it.
The child has:
- difficulty verbally communicating his needs, wants, … ;
- a limited vocabulary;
- difficulty articulating sounds.
Should your child’s seemingly limited language development cause concern, don’t hesitate to discuss this matter with your child’s physician and/or a speech and language specialist.
Remedial Reading – Syllabication
Syllabication is the process of dividing a word into its parts. This process makes it easier to read challenging multi-syllable words.
A syllable is a word or part of a word that has a vowel that can be heard. For instance:
- pet has one vowel and therefore is a one syllable word;
- boat has two vowels but as only the ‘o’ is sounded, it is a one syllable word;
- contain has three vowels but as only the ‘o’ and ‘a’ are sounded, it is a two syllable word – con/tain.
Syllabication tends to be the bane of weak readers be they 8 or 80.
As there are many exceptions to the syllabication patterns, the objective is to teach the concept that words that can be divided into parts rather than stressing particular patterns.
For exercises that allow students to grasp the concept of syllabication, you can refer to the Darwin the Dragon Reading Program or prepare your own.
Syllabication should be introduced when the student starts to encounter multisyllable words.
Side Note: As the Program also accommodates adults, it has two sets of teaching instructions as well as two titles – the one mentioned above and the Vowel First Method.
This video depicts the rapid progress a child made during the summer prior to grade 3. Within 8 sessions he advanced from a book which started with two words on a page to a book which had up to 18 lines on a page.
The rapid progress displayed in the videos as well as in the Examples of Effectiveness represent the norm for the Darwin Reading Program rather than the exception.
This series of postings has now come to an end. Hopefully, it has demonstrated that a student who starts off with reading difficulties is by no means destined to struggle indefinitely or develop a lasting dislike for reading. With appropriate remediation and the active involvement of teachers, parents and, if needed, tutors, a turnabout can be achieved and an interest in reading established.
Comments and questions are most welcome.
A final note to parents and tutors
Tutoring can be a most exciting undertaking. To experience its joys, take the time to prepare yourself well as this will allow you to proceed with a comfortable degree of confidence and enthusiasm.
Enjoy the journey!
Since a fair number of youngsters and adults experience literacy problems, consider sharing these postings with family and friends as you never know who might appreciate discovering a work that truly enhances lives. For more information on the Program, please visit the other sections of the site.